The Sustainable Living in Atlantic Canada email discussion is a place for Atlantic Canadians to exchange sustainable living ideas, practices, workshops, seminars, and sourcing information for local foods, goods and services, especially those that tread lightly on the earth. To subscribe please use this link:
National Adult Literacy Database (NALD) - Every year on January 27th since 1999, Family Literacy Day (FLD) is celebrated in communities throughout Canada, with activities related to reading, writing and math. Could you please take the time to let us know about the activities that you are planning or that you know about, surrounding Family Literacy Day? Examples of activities that have been announced on our website in the past are: Writing contests, Open House, Story time, Book drives, etc. Again this year, ABC CANADA Literacy Foundation (www.abc-canada.org) has announced that Robert Munsch, renowned Canadian children's book author, will be the Honorary Patron for Family Literacy Day 2007. ABC CANADA also distributes promotional material for FLD, to groups who request it. If you have any questions or comments on the services offered by NALD, please do not hesitate to contact me. For information or to send events, you can send me an email at firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
The Natural Step Canada
The Natural Step Canada is pleased to announce that its new
E-Learning Course, Sustainability: Step by Natural Step, has been completed and delivered to the first customers. The E-Course is a learning experience designed to provide practical sustainability education to a broad base of corporate, government and community organizations that are serious about moving towards more sustainable operations. TNS is grateful for the tremendous support and professional experience of its development partners, TM New Media and J. LeCavalier and Associates, who co-wrote, designed and produced the E-Learning Course. The E-Learning Course offers a variety of benefits to organizations that are serious about moving toward more
· High Quality Sustainability Education
· Solutions-Based Outcomes
· Accessible On-line Format
· Cost-Effective Delivery
· Opportunity for blended approach with in-person workshops
Sustainability: Step by Natural Step is now available through the
purchase of user licenses. We will be holding a demo of the E-Learning
Course at the TNS booth, February 2-4, 2006, at the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) Sustaining Communities Conference. If your organization is interested in learning more, please visit our website at
http://www.naturalstep.ca/elearning <http://www.naturalstep.ca/elearning> ,
or contact Saralyn Hodgkin, by phone at 613-748-3001 or by email at
This new website features original material rarely seen before and now available for the first time on the internet. Highlights include log books, digitized in their entirety , for privateer vessels, letters and art work.
INVENTORY OF PESTICIDE USAGE IN
NOVA SCOTIA'S ANNAPOLIS RIVER WATERSHED
The Clean Annapolis River Project (CARP) has recently completed an inventory
of pesticide usage in the Annapolis River watershed. The objectives of the
study were twofold: to document for the first time all pesticide usage
within the watershed, and develop a methodology for this type of inventory
at a watershed scale. The full report, as well as fact sheets on the seven
sectors examined, are available on the CARP website at
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN THE NORTHUMBERLAND
STRAIT AND THEIR EFFECTS UPON THE FISHERIES
This discussion document was prepared to initiate discussion about issues
relevant to the environment and resources of the Northumberland Strait and
the catchment areas draining into it. It is accompanied by summary 'Fact
Sheets' on aspects of the status of some of the resources and the possible
environmental stressors. The document is available at
"Ocean Yearbook" is a collaborative initiative of the International Ocean
Institute and the Marine and Environmental Law Institute at Dalhousie Law
School, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. For details on Volume
20, including ordering information, access
model of the earth. A few of the many features are: global weather
forecasts; live hurricane and tropical storm tracking; weekly sea surface
temperature animations; and Antarctic iceberg tracking. A free demo is
Visit this site for services from Nova Scotia Municipal Relations:
Visit this site for information on Nova Scotia Health Care:
The Nova Scotia Ramp Report was first produced by the Nova Scotia Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture in 1994. It served as a guide for companies, individuals and other agencies searching for a suitable ramp for launching their commercial or recreational boat. It proved to be extremely valuable and with approval from the department, today known as Department of Agriculture and Fisheries.
Check out Ducks Unlimited at this site:
Access a number of Maritime Services at the Canadian Coast Guard website:
Government is helping Nova Scotians harness solar energy and cut their energy costs.
The Department of Energy is offering a 10 per cent rebate on domestic and commercial solar water systems to a maximum $5,000 of the installed cost. The rebate applies to Nova Scotians who purchase solar water heating systems between Oct. 12, 2005, and Aug. 31, 2007.
"Hot water heating consumes the second largest amount of energy in most Nova Scotia homes," said acting Energy Minister Angus MacIssac. "This rebate helps Nova Scotians make a smart energy choice that could cut their energy costs in half."
The rebate only applies to year-round solar heating systems installed in households or commercial businesses. Eligible systems include those used for space heating, year-round pool heating, and those used for domestic hot water in showers, dishwashers and clothes washers.
"Solar energy is a clean and renewable energy source that will help Nova Scotians reduce greenhouse gas emissions and create long-term energy savings," said Mr. MacIssac.
Under the rebate program, applicants must be the registered owner of the household where the appliance is installed and include the original receipt with the application.
Applications are available online at www.gov.ns.ca/energy or by calling 1-800-670-4636.
Based on David Suzuki’s report “Sustainability within a Generation” :
Despite our reputation, Canada is struggling environmentally. In an extensive 2005 study called The Maple Leaf in the OECD: Comparing Progress Toward Sustainability, Canada finished 28th out of 30 OECD countries on indicators such as air, water, waste and climate change. Canadians are known for their love of nature, but there is a large gap between our environmental stewardship values and our environmental record. To close this gap and put Canada on a true path to sustainability by the year 2030, the David Suzuki Foundation has developed an action plan called Sustainability within a Generation: A New Vision for Canada. Written by leading environmental thinker, David Boyd, the report clearly outlines the solutions to Canada’s environmental challenges.
Canada has the ability to become a world leader in sustainability and environmental stewardship. We can do this by:
- Improving efficiency: Canada has a poor record of resource use, and over 90 per cent of material extracted for use in manufacturing goes to waste. We can improve by applying energy efficiency standards to appliances, passenger vehicles, homes and commercial buildings.
Improving water efficiency standards, shifting to renewable energy sources like wind, solar and micro-hydro would also help us achieve this goal.
- Eliminating waste and pollution: Eliminating waste means designing production and consumption processes and patterns so that waste is not created. In addition to reducing environmental impacts, reducing waste can produce economic opportunities, create jobs, and save money.
- Building sustainable cities (and communities): We can promote regional and national planning that integrates transportation, land-use and environmental planning; and ensuring municipal infrastructure is sustainable and based on smart growth. It’s also important to put an end to urban sprawl, which causes air pollution, water pollution, habitat destruction, gridlock, and loss of productive land.
Copies of the Executive Summary and full report are available at http://www.davidsuzuki.org/WOL/Sustainability/
Contains cornerstone philosophies that are related to the ones used by us
United Nations Earth Charter
Centre for Sustainability and Youth Leadership
University of New South Wales, Australia (PDF - 200 KB)
Education for Sustainability
by William McDonough for the World EXPO 2000 in Hannover, Germany (PDF - 250 KB)
The Hannover Principles: Design for Sustainability
Background paper by Kerry Stoll 2002, regarding social capital, social entrepreneurship and youth civic engagement (PDF - 500 KB)
Youth and Sustainability
Many rural kids gravitate to the cities. and end up exposed to street drugs and challenges of living in shelters, etc. This paper addresses these issues. http://www.halifax.ca/planning/documents/CAHDocufull.pdf
In the spring of 1997, three Canadian academics, Professors Hutchings (Dalhousie University), Haedrich (Memorial University of Newfoundland) and Walters (University of British Columbia), published a stinging attack on Canada's Department of Fisheries & Oceans
(DFO) in the pages of the Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.
The news media kept the resulting controversy alive through that summer, with Stephen Thorne of Canadian Press playing a leading role, while several editorials in Atlantic Canadian newspapers (including one that I wrote for Atlantic Fisherman
) called for an official inquiry into the Department's management of the fisheries. The federal government, in the person of the then-Minister of Fisheries & Oceans, Hon. David Anderson M.P., rejected those calls. However, in the fall the House of Commons Standing Committee on Fisheries & Oceans
began its own investigation, under the leadership of its then-Chairman, Mr. George Baker M.P. -- a member of the governing Liberal Party but still a vocal critic of the fisheries policies of the government.
The issues surrounding fisheries and their management are intricately complex and give endless scope for confusion. Even before the Standing Committee began its work, it was clear that the different interest groups were arguing on different planes, each emphasizing the strengths of its own position and the weaknesses of its opponents' arguments when those were judged in the frame of reference prefered by whoever was speaking. That approach cannot lead anywhere but to contradiction and confusion. Instead, if anything worthwhile is to emerge, it is essential first to expand the debate to encompass all viewpoints and then for each interest group to explore the weaknesses of its own position and the strengths of all counter-arguments.
It was also abundantly clear at the time that some of the original criticisms of DFO were simply wrong, while the solutions being promoted from within the universities seemed not so much unreasonable as downright misguided; though only those with broad experience in fisheries management will have understood why. Meanwhile, some of DFO's rebutals were, in their turn, little more than evasions, which made even its valid arguments seem less than convincing. Moreover, my initial interactions with the Standing Committee suggested that its members mostly lacked the specialist understanding of fisheries science and management that they would need to find their way through the complex of contradictory information that they were being given.
In that setting, and particularly considering that the Standing Committee was offering the only public review of DFO's performance that we were likely to see in the 1990s, I decided that independent fisheries scientists (free of the constraints that restrict colleagues within DFO) were duty-bound to speak out. To remain silent was to become part of the problems besetting Canada's fisheries and thus to abandon the very objectives of fisheries science. Furthermore, it was not sufficient to add to the cacophony of contradictory statements being offered to the Committee's members. Rather, what was needed was a balanced examination of the issues and a concrete proposal for a route forward. Such a submission could attract criticism and thus needed to be presented in sufficient detail that it could not be casually dismissed by those who disliked its conclusions.
It should also be said that such a submission was always likely to be ignored by those with the power to implement the suggestions that it contained. Equally, if any interest group took up those suggestions and advanced them, it was to be expected that the ideas would be distorted and manipulated to suit special interests. In preparing my submission, I did not suppose that its fate would be any more positive. That is not, however, adequate reason to refrain from engaging, at a professional level, in a public debate of such importance.
The formal submission to the Standing Committee which arose from these reflections eventually ran to nearly 40 pages, arranged in twelve independent "essays", plus a summary and an introduction. It was sent to the Standing Committee in January 1998, when a copy was also sent to Mr. Anderson for his information and that of his staff. To nobody's great surpise, I never received any formal response from the Standing Committee, though I was once asked to appear before them in Ottawa. The invitation came so late that there was no possibility of my responding. (For his part, Mr. Anderson did respond in April 1998, even though the material had only been sent to him for information. As was to be expected, his letter was polite but dismissive.)
In due course, the Standing Committee produced its East Coast Report
of March 1998 -- an interesting document though obviously destined to be as ignored as most other transient comments on the Atlantic Canadian fisheries. Later that year, Mr.ÊBaker was removed from the Chairmanship of his Committee, which then lapsed into quiescence. (In the summer of 1999, he was promoted to Prime Minister Chretien's cabinet.)
It might be best to leave my submission in the oblivion to which the Committee consigned it. However, in the belief that it may contain ideas of some lasting value, it is here published on the Web, as a verbatim copy (aside from corrections of a few spelling and grammatical errors) of the version sent to the Standing Committee and the Minister. Whatever the merits of my specific suggestions, I hope that they will contribute to the wider debate on the ways in which Canada's fisheries, and those of other countries, should be managed.
Since this material has not be updated since it was submitted in January 1998, certain points made may no longer be valid. DFO's science machine, for example, seems to have halted its prolonged decline during 1997-98 and has since begin to show some signs of revitalization -- morale, funding, staffing levels and sense of purpose have all improved since my essays were composed. In 1999, the Department has even commenced an effort to draw together an explicit statement of policy, as recommended in my final essay.
Canadian Fisheries Management in the Twenty-First Century
Links to the Text of the Submission
The original submission was structured as a summary, an introduction and twelve "essays". The latter were not intended to be read in any particular order and, to facilitate that flexibility, the fourteen items were loose-bound. The material is here reproduced in two forms. First, the text is available to be read on-line, following the original structure:
A Time for Radical Change
Canada Needs a Fisheries Policy
A Place for Unnatural Science
The Seamless Web of Science
Whither Fisheries Science?
Imprecisions and Uncertainty
Stock Assessment and the Private Sector
Contradictions and Conflicts
Scales of Time and Space
Fishermen, Councils and Control
Trouble at the Centre: DFO in the 1990s
Looking Towards a Solution
Before You Build A Wharf Or Do Other Work On The Shore Of Your Coastal Waterfront Property Important commercial and recreational species of fish and shellfish need quality habitat to thrive. Waterfront construction must be planned to help protect the areas where these species live and grow. It's that simple - no habitat, no fish.
Impacts on Fish and Fish Habitat
Fish and shellfish have specific environmental needs. They cannot survive in an area if the characteristics of their habitat change beyond their tolerance. Fish, shellfish, aquatic insects, and their habitats can be severely affected by waterfront activities and construction in waterways and along coastlines:
Applying for a Permit
- Construction-related chemicals, machinery fuels and lubricants, and wood preservatives can be toxic to marine life.
- Infilling eliminates suitable aquatic wildlife habitat.
- Wharves, breakwaters and causeways change water current patterns, and can cause erosion and sedimentation severely changing habitat conditions.
- Suspended sediment or silt smothers fish, shellfish eggs, and insect larvae. It reduces the production of food organisms for recreational and commercial species and transforms important, productive habitat into aquatic wastelands.
Before building a wharf or any other structure below the ordinary high water mark (OHWM) of any coastal waters, you must have a permit from the Department of Natural Resources. If you follow standard guidelines, the application can be processed at the Department of Natural Resources office near your property. Your permit application must include the location of your property and information about what you want to construct. In most instances, the land covered by water is Crown land, and various acts and policies apply to the use of the land. For construction in fresh water, you must contact the Department of Environment and Labour.
The guidelines outlined below are designed to accommodate most requests. However, it is recognized that they may not meet the requirements of special situations that occur along Nova Scotia's diverse shorelines. Where the physical environment demands construction beyond the scope of these guidelines, you must make special application at your local Department of Natural Resources office. Your application will be subject to review by, and approval from, other departments and an environmental asssessment may be required.
Wharves and boat ramps must be constructed of materials which do not leach toxins and are free of oil, grease and other contaminants. Wood treated with creosote or pentachlorophenol (PCP) may not be used.
The wharf must not exceed 3.66 metres (12 feet) in width and 30.48 metres (100 feet) in length (beyond the OHWM). The wharf may be supported by cribs or poles. Infilling is not permitted, with the exception of clean, non-toxic material from a non-waterbody source, used to fill cribwork. A space of at least 1.22 metres (4 feet) must be maintained between any supporting poles. Crib structures are not to be sheathed in below the ordinary high water level. Crib dimensions may not exceed 3.66 metres (12 feet) in any direction. An open span of at least 3.05 metres (10 feet) must be maintained between each crib. The first crib must be located either entirely on the landward side of the OHWM or at least 3.05 metres (10 feet) from, and on the seaward side of, the OHWM. The first crib is not permitted to straddle the OHWM.
Boat Ramp Construction
The boat ramp must not exceed 4.57 metres (15 feet) in width. Total coverage of the bed of the body of water below the OHWM by all portions of the boat ramp must not exceed 27.9 square metres (300 square feet). Existing rocks within the proposed ramp area may be moved aside, by hand or machine, provided they are not removed from the waterbody.
Repair To Existing Wharves
A permit is required to repair an existing wharf, unless
- the work is limited to that portion of the wharf which is above the level of ordinary high water; and
- the work will not substantially increase the size of the wharf.
In any event, wharf repairs must be carried out in accordance with Department of Natural Resources general guidelines. Conact your local Department of Natural Resources office for further information.
Solid breakwaters can have a significant impact on the coastal environment. The preferred method for creating shelter water for a craft is to place baffles between the spans of a crib or poles of a constructed wharf, or to place sheathing as prescribed by a permit.
Infilling in front of recreational or residential properties is generally not permitted. An application to infill may be considered if the project is likely to result in a public benefit. The application would be subject to extensive review by staff of the Department of Natural Resources. The Department of Fisheries and Oceans (Canada) would also review the project to identify any possible navigation and fish habitat concerns. In most instances, the proponent is required to purchase the infilled land if the project is approved.
Bank protection work which is carried out entirely above the ordinary high water mark of your property does not require a permit from the Department of Natural Resources. However, you are responsible for implementing proper erosion control measures to protect the aquatic environment from siltation. If the bank protection requires placement of material, or operation of machinery, below the ordinary high water mark, you are required to obtain a permit from the Department of Natural Resources. The project may also be subject to review by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (Canada).
Moorings must be constructed of materials which do not leach toxins and are free of oil, grease and other contaminants. Owners of waterfront property are generally permitted to place one mooring in front of and within 60 metres (197 feet) of their property, without a permit. Other persons who wish to place moorings within this area generally require the consent of the owner of the upland property and a permit from the Department of Natural Resouces. Moorings located more than 60 metres (197 feet) from the shoreline may be permitted without the consent of the upland owner, at the discretion of the Department of Natural Resources.
Disclaimer / Further Information
The above is provided for general information purposes only. For more detailed information, or to obtain an application for construction on coastal submerged lands, please contact any Department of Natural Resources office. (For construction activities in fresh water, please contact the Department of Environment and Labour).
Names are listed under modern county boundaries which, in some cases, may differ from the county of record at the time of loss.
All maps, except Isle Madame, are outside links to the Nova Scotia Department of Housing and Municipal Affairs.
Halifax Regional Municipality
Halifax Regional Library
Parks & Recreation Services
Solid Waste Management
Traffic and Planning
This past November, Voluntary Planning's Heritage Strategy Task Force conducted twenty-two community hall meetings throughout the province. Over nine hundred people attended these open community sessions to listen and, in many cases, to speak directly with the task force members.
These successful gatherings provided the task force members with an excellent sense of the heritage issues facing citizens, volunteers, heritage workers and, indeed, our entire province. We heard a wide range of thoughts and constructive ideas that will prove invaluable as we begin to develop recommendations for our province's heritage strategy.
We have also received detailed written advice from Nova Scotians in the form of over 300 submissions in response to our call for input.
The task force is continuing to review the information received so far and to consult with experts, stakeholder organizations and others in advance of the interim report we intend to issue in April. Following the release of this interim report we will again ask for written comments from Nova Scotians, so that we can make additional improvements before issuing a final report prior to the end of June.
You will need the free Adobe PDF Reader to view the PDF files on this website. The free Reader can be found by clicking on the following link to go to the Adobe Acrobat Reader download page.
For those of you so inclined:
Scott Walking Adventures
Some people think that the 'best deals' are made on the golf course. We think that the 'best plans' are made on the trail. Ask us about organizing a day on the trail for you and your office associates to 'walk and talk', build team relationships and enjoy a healthful and restorative day outdoors. Custom weekend itineraries are also available. Check out our scheduled Weekend Adventures at www.scottwalking.com/chooseyourholiday.cfm or call 1-800-262-8644 or 902-858-2060.
The Fish Harvester Labour Force 1991-2001
Phase II Sector Study of Canada's Fish Harvesting Industry
Fishing Enterprise Crew Members
Servey Report on Fishing Enterprise Crew Members
Issues of Concern Regarding Aur Resources’ Proposed Duck Pond Mine in Central Newfoundland C. Coumans, March 27, 2006
1 ISSUES OF CONCERN REGARDING AUR RESOURCES’ PROPOSED DUCK POND MINE IN CENTRAL NEWFOUNDLAND Catherine Coumans, PhD, MiningWatch Canada March 27, 2006
Aur Resources plans to destroy two ponds in central Newfoundland (natural water bodies that are vitally important habitat for trout, salmon, waterfowl, and other species) by using them for the disposal of mine waste that will be acid-generating and toxic. Aur has argued that the destruction of these lakes for its “Duck Pond” copper-zinc mine is the best alternative for disposal of its mine wastes. Canadian regulatory authorities have not challenged this assertion and are now prepared to recommend that the Metal Mining Effluent Regulation (MMER, under the Fisheries Act) be amended by the Government of Canada to add these ponds to Schedule 2 of the MMER.
Inclusion on Schedule 2 allows for the redefinition of any water body in Canada as a waste dump and subsequently exempts companies from the limitations set by the MMER on effluent that enters the natural environment. Currently under the regulation, this method of disposal of mine wastes is illegal. Aur Resources and Canadian regulatory authorities (EC, DFO) are statutorily obligated to seek alternatives to the destruction of fresh water bodies for industrial purposes. In the case of this “Duck Pond” mine, there is an alternative to the destruction of the ponds and surrounding wetlands, but government and the company have ignored it. At the Louvicourt mine (also copper-zinc) in Quebec, where Aur Resources is 30% owner as well as mine manager, the ecision was made to not destroy natural water bodies for mine waste disposal, but to create manmade structures. The following quotes from a report published by the mine companies clearly indicate that Aur Resources and Canadian regulatory authorities do have a viable alternative to the destruction of fresh water bodies at this mine.
“The Louvicourt Mine, located near Val d’Or, Quebec, has been in operation since 1994. It produces copper and zinc concentrates. The tailings generated from the ore processing operations have a strong net acid generating potential. Louvicourt Mine, a grassroots project, was designed for closure with the best available technology at the time of design. In order to inhibit short and long term acid generation potential, sub-aqueous disposal was selected at the design stage. Given the fact that disposal in a natural lake was ruled out up front for obvious reasons related to loss of natural habitat and risks to permitting delays, a man made facility built with dams was planned. The mine includes, therefore, the first fully man-made sub-aqueous tailings disposal facility built in Canada. The requirement of using sub-aqueous disposal had serious implications on the placement of tailings. The tailings facility, located about 9 km from the mine site, has been selected based on the available natural confinement, the favourable foundation, and hydrogeologic conditions” (Abstract, p. 2, emphasis added). “Overall, the use of the man-made structure to control acid generation of tailings has proven to be a successful endeavour” (Conclusion, p. 19, emphasis added). Source: Performance and Monitoring of the Louvicourt Mine Tailings Disposal Area, M.R. Julien, et al, Golder Associates, and Jean Cayouette, et al, Aur Resources (no date), pp. 21.
Issues of Concern Regarding Aur Resources’ Proposed Duck Pond Mine in Central Newfoundland C. Coumans, March 27, 2006
2 FACTS FROM THE PUBLIC RECORD PERTAINING TO THE AUR RESOURCES DUCK POND PROJECT
1) Sacrificing ponds, rivers, wetlands—all important fish and wildlife habitat—for a mine with a predicted life span of 6.2 years.
- The Duck Pond (copper-zinc) Mine will significantly and permanently affect two main tributaries entering the stem of the Exploits River, Newfoundland’s largest river system: Harpoon Brook (Trout Pond, Trout Pond Brook, Gill’s Pond Brook) and Noel Paul’s Brook (Tally Pond, Tally Pond Brook) (DFO Oct 17, 2001)
- Two ponds will be permanently buried in mine waste. Trout Pond and another pond (lacustrine habitat) in the headwaters of a tributary to Gill’s Pond Brook will be destroyed by environmentally toxic mine waste exceeding Metal Mining Effluent Regulation (MMER) limits. Both ponds contain brook trout, Atlantic and land-locked salmon (ouananiche). Trout Pond also contains threespine stickleback, otters, and other species.
- Degradation of riverine habitat. Loss of riverine habitat is expected in “elements of the Harpoon Brook and Noel Paul’s Brook watersheds:” (Trout Pond Brook, Gill’s Pond Brook, Tally Pond Brook, East Pond Brook) (EIS 2001:236). Riverine degradation is as a result of complete loss of flow, flow alterations, and toxic seepage from mine waste through dams, among others (EIS 2001:260; EIS Deficiency List October 2001). These waterways contain brook trout, sea run and land-locked Atlantic salmon, Arctic char, American eel, threespine stickleback, among others. - The Exploits River is a scheduled salmon river and has been part of a major Atlantic salmon enhancement program funded by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans since 1978. This project has cost upwards of $30 million public dollars and was scheduled to become self-sufficient in 1990 and expected to produce 100,000 salmon in full production.
2) The legal obligation on the proponent and on local Environment Canada authorities to explore alternative mine waste disposal options was not taken seriously.
- Aur Resources, local Environment Canada – Environmental Protection Branch, the Newfoundland Department of Environment and Labour and the Department of Fisheries and Oceans did not do all they could to explore alternatives to the destruction of two ponds and significant river/aquatic habitat for mine waste disposal. Environment Canada in Ottawa only found out about the planned destruction of fish habitat in February 2005 (personal communication: Chris Doiron, EC).
- The plan to use Trout Pond as a mine waste impoundment dates back to an EIS prepared by Noranda Minerals Inc. in 1991.
- A review of the public record shows that the Environmental Assessment Division of the Department of Environment and Labour of Newfoundland and Labrador provided Guidelines for a new EIS, after Thundermin Resources and Queenston Mining took over the project in 2000, and requested that the proponents provide “alternatives” to individual project components based on a detailed discussion of environmental, social and economic criteria (Guidelines Dec. 2000:3.3; 7.2). With respect to alternatives to the destruction of two fish bearing ponds by mine waste, the 2001 EIS provides 11 lines of text, one map, and one chart based on a Multiple Account Analysis to conclude that the destruction of Trout Pond is the best alternative for mine waste disposal (pp. 23-25). This conclusion does not appear to be challenged in any of the government reviews of the 2001 EIS (reviews by local branches of Federal Departments and by Provincial Departments), nor is this issue ever addressed again in subsequent environmental reviews even though the project changed hands once again and further studies were conducted.
3) “Compensation” plans for “alteration, disruption or destruction of lacustrine [lake/pond] and riverine fish habitat” are based on inadequate and deficient data. The compensation plan review process shows a cavalier attitude towards the natural resources that are being sacrificed.
- In 1989, initial fish sampling was done between September 21 and October 3, when Brook trout are known to spawn and leave ponds, rendering the results of this sampling unreliable (EIS Deficiency List October 2001).
- The 2001 EIS was rejected by Fisheries and Oceans Canada as it contained “insufficient information…to allow the quantification of fish habitat potentially impacted by the proposed project” (DFO Feb 1, 2002). Additional information was requested for Trout Pond Brook, Gill’s Pond Brook tributary, and Tally Pond Brook systems.
- In 2003, DFO provided new proponent Aur Resources with information on how to conduct field work to establish fish and fish habitat baselines and asked Aur to determine the “productive capacity” of Trout Pond and Gill’s Brook tributary (Sedimentation Pond) (Snow, May 22). Aur was warned that ten days may not be enough time and that sampling should not be done late in the summer when “fish (particularly brook trout) restrict their movements ” (Snow, June Nonetheless, Aur’s consultants undertook the sampling of Trout Pond and Sedimentation Pond in ten days during the heat of summer.
- In 2004, the consultants for Aur Resources comment on “difficulty in providing compensation for lost pond habitat” for the two ponds that will be destroyed and suggest that they will compensate with additional riverine habitat units (Jacques Whitford: 8 April). DFO agrees to this plan even though compensating for habitat with unlike habitat” [bold in original] is the “second option within the hierarchy” (Snow: May 19).
- In 2004, DFO commented on Aur’s habitat compensation strategy by noting: 1) it is unfortunate that the sampling during high water temperatures led to the necessary abandonment of using individually numbered tags because of high risk of mortality; 2) Aur cannot claim to have determined the “productive capacity” of the two ponds based on a “single estimate of standing stock for each species in each pond” [underline in original]; 3) Aur can consider undertaking “additional fieldwork during the 2004 field season to reassess efforts undertaken in 2003…” (Snow: May 19). We have seen no evidence that Aur followed DFO’s suggestion and undertook any more field studies to better determine fish and fish habitat affected by the mine.
- In 2005, DFO asked Aur to assess the impacts on fish and fish habitat of a jetty that is to be put into yet another pond – Tally Pond – from which water will be drawn for the mine. Aur’s consultants conclude: “As no standing stock estimate has been determined for Tally Pond, data from Trout Pond has been used to produce surrogate standing stock estimates.” DFO accepted this. In other words, an estimate based on minimal field studies from Trout Pond, which is quite different in proportions and other characteristics, was considered an acceptable means to determine the impacts on fish and fish habitat in Tally Pond. 4) After a predicted 6.2 years of operations, the destruction of two ponds and the degradation of river/aquatic habitat, this mine will become a “perpetual care and maintenance” mine. In the middle of a critical watershed for Newfoundland, this mine’s highly acidic waste has the potential to leach out metals and will need to be kept under water behind a number of dams that will need to be maintained “in perpetuity.”
- In 2001, Environment Canada responded to the 2001 EIS by noting “a concern on the high rate of cyanide use” for the Copper/Lead Separation Circuit. The concern was for finding ways to minimize releases of cyanide to the tailings management area (Env Can: Sept 25). However, in 2005, Aur’s consultants struck cyanide from the substances that need to be monitored under the “Effluents Monitoring Requirement.” (Jacques Whitford: 11 Feb). The precautionary principle would dictate that Aur should monitor for cyanide to provide maximum protection to the Exploits River watershed.
- Aur has established that groundwater is high in its project area. In 2001, Environment Canada identified that “possible contamination of groundwater by ARD [Acid Rock Drainage] is an issue of concern not further addressed in the EIS” (Env Can, September 25).
- In 2001, The Department of Mines and Energy – Mineral Development Division noted that “[f]inancial assurance for mine rehabilitation and closure must also be addressed” (EIS Deficiency List October 2001). While subsequent submissions by Aur provide some information on closure plans, there is no evidence that a bond has been posted adequate to cover costs of perpetual monitoring of ground and surface waters around the mine and perpetual maintenance of the dams that will keep the toxic mine waste from contaminating the Exploits River system.
by: Ted Scrutton
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It began as a warm, sunny day. You became so caught up in your hunting or fishing adventure that you didn't notice that it would soon be dark and that clouding skies and a temperature drop have produced a cold drizzle. Typical Nova Scotia weather! Although you may have been in this situation before and managed to get out to the comforts of home, this time something unexpected happens.
It could be that you have become disoriented or injured or fatigued and cold. Whatever the reason and knowing that travel at night could lead to further problems, you realize that the best thing to do is to stay where you are until you can be found or you can safely make your own way out. This scenario along with many other variations on the theme could prove to be fatal if you are unprepared.
RATE YOUR SURVIVABILITY! (Best to print out form)
When you go on a hunting/fishing/outdoor trip (circle the appropriate answer):
Do you tell people at home:
- where you are going? YES or NO
- how long you expect to be? YES or NO
- what your alternate plans may be YES or NO
Do you go with other people? YES or NO
Are you: physically fit? YES or NO
- healthy? YES or NO
Do you eat nutritious food regularly? YES or NO
Do you have a strong will to live? YES or NO
Do you have loved ones? YES or NO
Have you ever had to deal with a survival-like situation? YES or NO
Do you have with you at all times:
- extra clothing? YES or NO
- sleeping bag? YES or NO
- whistle? YES or NO
- map/compass YES or NO
- something to provide shelter? YES or NO
- something to generate heat? YES or NO
- knife/axe/saw? YES or NO
Can you locate and make use of natural shelter from wind/rain? YES or NO
Would you be able to light and maintain a fire in rain drenched woods? YES or NO
Are you a well-rounded woodsman who has spent a lot of time in the wilderness? YES or NO
The more "yes" answers you have relative to your "no" answers, the more prepared you are for a survival situation.
Look at yourself, not as an individual alone in the woods, but as a survival system, a system that possesses certain resources (outdoor skills and expertise, personality traits, experiences and equipment).
How effectively you can identify and utilize the resources at hand will make the difference.
Lets take a look at the resources available to you in your present survival situation.
Physical resources such as health, state of nutrition, fitness and strength. These all effect the probability of your survival. If you happen to be overweight, out of shape or eating poorly, you could be predisposed to hypothermia, fatigue and possible injury.
Human resources at your disposal should take two forms; those with you and those back home. Should you be fortunate enough to be with other people during your survival vigil, you must be able to pool your resources and cooperate to make the best of the situation.
However, there could be a great many people who could be of use to you even though they may not be a part of your company. The fact that you have loved ones back home will not only inspire you to survive, but also, if they know of your whereabouts and plans, will prompt an early search response that could mean the difference between life and death. Leaving with friends and/or relatives a detailed itinerary of your trip and expected times of arrival would prove to be valuable tools to the rescue unit that will attempt to find you.
Your mental resources could be the most critical determining factor in your efforts to survive. The ability to recognize your dilemma early and promptly make some positive decisions concerning your immediate actions could make the difference. You must remain under control and have a positive attitude towards your situation. There is no room for blame, self-doubt or disgust. Get down to the business at hand.
If you have been in a similar predicament before, you usually can use this to your advantage. It is the novel situation that will cause you the most stress and anxiety. It might be worthwhile setting up controlled experiences on your own so that you can see first hand how you perform.
The wilderness environment provides and abundance of natural resources for your use. The ability to recognize their usefulness then the skill to turn them into useful tools for fire and shelter building, signalling, navigation, etc., are skills that many woodsmen possess. While we as conscientious travellers in the woods, try to minimize our environmental impact, in a survival situation use every resource available to you. It could prove to be the edge you need to survive.
Equipment that you have with you is obviously an excellent resource but people should not rely too heavily on its presence. One thing to remember about equipment, it should perform best when you need it most.
The law requires that you carry a knife or axe, waterproof matches (or matches in a waterproof container) and a compass when travelling in unfamiliar terrain. Some form of light weight shelter material, i.e. 6 mil plastic, would also be desirable. (Space blankets tend to rip and tear in severe weather). A small stove to provide warm liquid as well as the equipment necessary to provide for a fire (waterproofed, strike anywhere matches, as well as some fire starter material) should be carried at all times.
There are many other items that could be carried with you but the type and quantity of equipment that is always on your person depends on your strengths and weaknesses within the other four resources at your disposal. The more highly skilled a woodsman you are and the better you can utilize the environment, the less equipment you might have to take with you. If you have not proven these skills then I suggest you make up for your weaknesses with the appropriate technology.
Your survival system is an interplay between these five resources. The effectiveness of your system is dependent upon how well you can develop each of these components and how expert you have become at utilizing the resources available to you.
Very critical to survival is the control of heat loss by the body. Find shelter quickly. Do not expose yourself to the wind, rain or snow any longer than you have to. Insulate yourself from the ground since this contact is a major source of heat loss. Keep major heat loss areas, i.e. head, neck, armpits and groin, covered. Assume some sort of huddle position, either by yourself or with friends, that is comfortable and does not restrict blood flow.
While exercise is an excellent method of warming up the body it should only be done in the early stages of being cold and should not be done if you end up exposing yourself to wind, rain or snow. You can stay in your sheltered area and perform muscle contractions (isometric exercise) with no limb movement.
Food is not essential to survival. You need energy so that you can perform the tasks related to survival but it is totally unnecessary to hunt or trap animals in Nova Scotia. You can live weeks without food. Take some chocolate bars with you on your outings.
Water is extremely necessary, especially in the winter when you dehydrate very easily without knowing it. You may only be able to live three days without water.
Fires have been traditionally foremost in peoples minds when they are getting cold. They can be of great psychological advantage and good for drying and warming clothes as well as heating liquids. However, sitting by a fire can actually make you colder. Heat from the fire causes blood vessels in the skin to dilate which is contrary to the body's initial reaction to cold (a decrease in blood flow). So any heat gained must be more than that which is normally conserved via the body's initial reaction.
Be careful of the misconception that windproof and waterproof matches are what you need. Unfortunately, if you lose or damage the striker you cannot light these matcher. Get strike-anywhere matches.
Shelters may be in grottos and under trees. Searchers may not find you in there hideaways so you must find a way of making yourself visible.
If near open land or a frozen lake, you can construct a large display to attract aircraft. Tramp out letters S.O.S. in the snow and fill in with vegetation or pile branches in the shape of letters or hang a large piece of gear or clothing so that it will wave in the wind like a flag.
Remember, in Nova Scotia, you probably only need to survive 2 or 3 days before being found, so most of your energies should go into stabilizing your situation as quickly as possible and waiting.
Based upon your Survivability Rating and the information presented in this article, can you identify areas where you may need to develop your survival expertise?
While this article in no way exhausts all of the necessities of survival, it is aimed at putting in perspective the concepts of survival for the outdoor enthusiast. In Nova Scotia, we are fortunate to have in place the Nova Scotia Outdoor Leadership Development Program that not only deals in detail with survival but also other outdoor skills such as woodsmanship, leadership and navigation. Further information on NSOLD Programs can be obtained by contacting: Coordinator of Outdoor Recreation, Nova Scotia Department of Culture, Recreation and fitness, P.O. Box 864, Halifax, NS, B3J 2V2, (424-7620).
There are many steps in preparing for a survival situation. One of the best is having suitable equipment and knowing how to use it. A well prepared survival kit can be a lifesaver. to be of value, however, you must always carry it with you in the wilderness.
Your kit should be designed to help you satisfy the five basic needs for survival: Shelter, Warmth, Water, Energy, and a Positive Mental Attitude.
Shelter: What is needed is a waterproof, windproof covering for the entire body which can be quickly and easily deployed. A few suggestions are listed below.
- Plastic Tarps (2-6ml.)(approx. size 3mx4m)
- Nylon tarp or tent fly.
- Bivi bag - Waterproof bag used as an outside liner for a sleeping bag
- Industrial Garbage bag/leaf bag.
- Space blanket
- String or cord - for securing shelters
Warmth: Two ways to warm the body are from an external heat source or internally with hot liquids or foods. For these you need to be able to build a fire and heat liquids. Your kit should include something to ignite the fire and something to heat water in. Tinder and something to flavor the water are desirable extras. The following list satisfies these needs.
- Waterproof matches - (wood matches dipped in wax).
- Fire starters - (tinder) - Cotton balls dipped in wax - Bar-b-que cubes - Trench candles, and many others
- Metal container - or aluminum foil - to heat liquids
- Tea - to flavor hot liquids
Water: The container listed above may be used to carry water, or melt snow.
Energy: Food should be included in a survival kit based on the energy it will provide, it's compactness, ease of preparation and ability to keep for a long time. Two foods which serve these needs are listed below.
- Sugar - provides quick energy - should be wrapped in waterproof cover - to sweeten tea or eaten as is.
- Bouillon - provides salt to reduce cramps and fatigue
Positive Mental Attitude: There are many things we could include in a survival kit to help support a positive mental attitude. These items can be classified as tools, information or first-aid.
- knife - many cutting uses
- wire - repairs, pot handle, snares
- whistle - signal
- compass - navigation
- tape - repairs, bandages
- fishing line - repairs, fishing
- hooks - fishing
- paper and pencil - to record situation, leave messages, entertainment
- brochure or survival cards
- A first-aid kit contains many more items than listed here. These are a few items which have multiple usage.
- tape - for bandage, sprains, etc.
- safety pins - splinter removal, holding bandages, repairs
- wire, string - sewing splints, repairs
Container: The kit should be contained in a waterproof container. A metal can, can serve as a cook pot. Seal with bright color tape. Shelter may be inside or wrapped around outside.
Nova Scotia Community Profiles
- 'Coastal Connections' is a publication of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA) Coastal Services Center. The April/May issue, which focuses on coastal ecosystem restoration, is available at http://www.csc.noaa.gov/newsletter/.
- The book entitled "50 Ways to Save the Oceans" focuses on practical, easily
implemented actions to protect and conserve the oceans. It also addresses issues such as toxic pollutant runoff; protecting wetlands and sanctuaries; saving reef environments; and replenishing fish reserves. For details, including ordering information, access http://www.50waystosavetheocean.com.
FAO GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNING MONITORING
PROGRAMMES FOR CO-MANAGED FISHERIES
A two-part Fisheries Technical Paper has been published by FAO to meet the growing need among co-managers for guidelines to help design and implement appropriate and cost-effective data collection systems. "Part I: Practical Guide" is specifically for co-managers and facilitators working in the field. "Part II: Technical Guidelines" provides more detail on each of the sections found in the Practical Guide. The Guidelines are available at http://www.fao.org/fi/nems/news/detail_news.asp?lang=en&event_id=34182.
- The presentations from the Symposium of the Ocean Renewable Energy Group
New home page site for persons with disabilities for Service Canada. Feel free to share this with your staff and other organizations.
Les Dames de Sainte Anne
P.O. Box 339
Cheticamp, Nova Scotia BOE 1HO
PO Box 2115
Port Hawkesbury, Nova Scotia B0E 2V0
Canso Women's Support Group
43 Union Street
Canso, Nova Scotia BOH 1HO
Guysborough Learning Opportunities for Women
PO Box 5
Guysborough, Nova Scotia BOH 1NO
P.O. Box 245
Sheet Harbour, Nova Scotia BOJ 3BO
Women in Networking and Communication
c/o RR #1
Scotsburn, Nova Scotia B0K 1R0
Women's Action Coalition of Nova Scotia
c/o R.R. #1
Scotsburn, Nova Scotia B0K 1R0
West Branch Women's Group
Scotsburn, Nova Scotia BOK 1RO
Hants East P.C. Woman's Association
Hants Co., Nova Scotia BON 1N0
Kings County Women in Education Committee
175 Main Street
Berwick, Nova Scotia B0P 1E0
Family Support Centre
Greenwood, Nova Scotia BOP 1NO
Women In Trades & Technology (WITTNova Scotia)
115 Middle Dyke Road, Apt. 1
Port Williams, Nova Scotia B0P 1T0
Acadia University Women's Club
PO Box 1548
Wolfville, Nova Scotia B0P 1X0
Association of Nova Scotia Midwives
P.O. Box 968
Wolfville, Nova Scotia B0P 1X0
Helping Other Women
Wolfville, Nova Scotia BOP 1XO
Acadia Women's Centre
c/o Acadia University
A.S.U. Box 6002
Wolfville, Nova Scotia B0P 1Z1
Western Valley Women & CED Project Team
26 Bay (Inglewood) Road
PO Box 251
Bridgetown, Nova Scotia B0S 1C0
Annapolis County Family Resource Centre
RR #3 Graville Ferry
Annapolis Co., Nova Scotia B0S 1K0
Annapolis County Women's Coalition
c/o PO Box 571
Middleton, Nova Scotia B0S 1P0
The Woman's Place
c/o PO Box 571
Middleton, Nova Scotia B0S 1P0
Queen's County Family Resource Centre
PO Box 1360
Liverpool, Nova Scotia B0T 1K0
Women's Inter-Church Council of Canada
PO Box 81
Milton, Nova Scotia B0T 1P0
Shelburne County Family Resource Centre
PO Box 532
127 King Street
Shelburne, Nova Scotia B0T 1W0
Digby County Family Resource Centre
P.O. Box 163
Digby, Nova Scotia B0V 1A0
Citizens Against Spousal Abuse
P.O. Box 1456
Digby, Nova Scotia B0V 1A0
Well Woman & Health Awareness Association
Church Point, Nova Scotia BOW 1MO
Jane Hurshman Memorial Fund
Box 10, Site 2,Glenwood
Yarmouth Co., Nova Scotia B0W 1W0
Cape Breton Family Resource Centre
106 Townsend Street
Sydney, Nova Scotia B1P 5E1
Every Woman's Centre
102 Townsend Street
Sydney, Nova Scotia B1P 5E1
Elizabeth Fry Society of Cape Breton
106 Townsend Street
Sydney, Nova Scotia B1P 5E1
Tel: (902) 539-6165
The Ann Terry Project
P.O. Box 368
Sydney, Nova Scotia B1P 6H2
Women Unlimited Feminist Association
PO Box 368
Sydney, Nova Scotia B1P 6H2
Cape Breton Transition House
P.O. Box 487
Sydney, Nova Scotia B1P 6H4
Transition House Education Office
PO Box 487
Sydney, Nova Scotia B1P 6H4
Women's Legal Education and Action Fund
PO Box 595
Sydney, Nova Scotia B1P 6H4
Women's World Finance
P.O. Box 1142
Sydney, Nova Scotia B1P 6J7
University College of Cape Breton Women's Centre
Student Union Building
PO Box 5300
Sydney, Nova Scotia B1P 6L2
Antigonish Women's Resource Centre
Suite 204, Kirk Place
219 Main Street, Antigonish, N.S.
B2G 2C1 Canada
Fax number (902) 863-4980 Canada
Women turn to the Resource Centre for information and assistance, referrals, and advocacy. Women come to the centre for information and peer counselling; self-help and support groups; workshops and presentations; referrals to other community resources; advocacy, legal, and medical accompaniment; a lending resource library; a space for meeting and group work; volunteer opportunities; and celebrations.
23 Bay Street, 3rd Floor
Antigonish, Nova Scotia B2G 2G7
Marie Michael Library
Coady International Institute
St Francis Xavier University
Antigonish, Nova Scotia
Canada B2G 2W5
Tel: +1 902 867 3964
Fax: +1 902 867 3907
Sr. Marie Michael MacKinnon, the Institute's first librarian, was involved with the women's program of the social and economic renewal movement in Eastern Canada known as the Antigonish Movement for many years. The Coady International Institute is a university-based training centre for development workers from the South; the Mary Michael Library is an integral part of the Institute. In recent years the library developed a special focus on gender and development. Two specific grants have allowed it to build a strong collection. The library has also published three titles relating to gender and maintains a website.
Business Women's Network
Pictou Co. Chamber of Commerce
980 East River Road
New Glasgow, Nova Scotia B2H 3S5
Pictou County Second Stage Housing
PO Box 663
New Glasgow, Nova Scotia B2H 5E2
Tearmann Society For Battered Women
P.O. Box 153
New Glasgow, Nova Scotia B2H 5E2
Pictou County Women's Centre
P.O. Box 964
New Glasgow, Nova Scotia B2H 5K7
Low Income Women's Group
New Glasgow, Nova Scotia B2H 5K7
129 Arthur Street
Truro, Nova Scotia B2N 1Y2
Colchester Sexual Assault Centre
64 Inglis Street
Truro, Nova Scotia B2N 4B4
Women's Institutes of Nova Scotia
P.O. Box 550
Truro, Nova Scotia B2N 5E3
Native Women's Association
P.O. Box 805
Truro, Nova Scotia B2N 5E8
Outreach for Women
574 Prince Street
Truro, Nova Scotia B2N 5G7
Third Place Transition House
P.O. Box 1681
Truro, Nova Scotia B2N 5Z5
Nova Institution for Women
180 James Street
Truro, Nova Scotia B2N 6R8
East Hants Family Resource Centre
8 Old Enfield Road
Enfield, Nova Scotia B2T 1C9
Congress of Black Women of Canada, East Preston Chapter
79 Lakecrest Drive
Halifax, Nova Scotia B2X 1V4
Parent Resource Centre
47 Wentworth Street
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia B2Y 2T1
ANSWERS - Association of Nova Scotia Women for Education and Research in Science
7 Thompson Street
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia B2Y 2X8
P.O. Box 333
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia B2Y 3Y5
DisAbled Women's Network
24 Dundas Street
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia B2Y 4L2
Femmes d'Action du Halifax Metro
250 Victoria Road
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia B3A 4R7
Dartmouth Family Resource Centre
96 Highfield Park Drive, Unit 111
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia B3A 4W4
Matrix Women's Services
Drug Dependency Services
Lord Nelson Arcade, 4th floor
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1H1
Coverdale Courtwork Services
6035 Coburg Road, 2nd Floor
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1Y8
L'Association des Acadiennes de la N.-E.
1106 South Park Street
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 2W7
Maritime School of Social Work - Women's Group
6414 Coburg Road
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5
Women's Faculty Association
c/o French Department
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5
Dalhousie Women's Centre
1229 LeMarchant Street
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3P6
Dalhousie Association of Women and the Law
Weldon Law Building
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4H9
Avalon Sexual Assault Centre
5516 Spring Garden Road,
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 1G6
Women's Justice Outreach Program
5516 Spring Garden Road
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 1G6
Women's Employment Outreach
5639 Spring Garden Road
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 1G9
Women and AIDS
5675 Spring Garden Road
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 1H1
Association of Atlantic Women Business Owners
1819 Granville Street
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 1X8
Girl Guides of Canada
Nova Scotia Council
1871 Granville Street
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 1Y1
YWCA of Halifax
1239 Barrington Street
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 1Y3
Business and Professional Women's Club
7050 Churchill Drive
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 1Y3
Transition House Association of Nova Scotia
1657 Barrington Street
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2A1
Canadian Federation of University Women
5633 Morris Street
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2C4
Nova Scotia Advisory Council on the Status of Women
PO Box 745
B3J 2T3 Canada
Minister Responsible for the Status of Women
PO Box 696
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2T7
PO Box 966
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2V9
Nova Scotia Advisory Council on the Status of Women
PO Box 745
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2T3
Counting Women In
c/o PO Box 745
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2T3
Well Woman Clinic
IWK Grace Health Centre
5980 University , 6th floor
Halifax, Nova Scotia
Canada B3J 3G9
Maritime Centre of Excellence for Women's Health
c/o Grace Health Centre
5850/5980 University Avenue
Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
Tel: 902 420 6751 or (902) 428-5973 or Toll Free (Atlantic): 1 888 658-1112
Fax: 902 420 6752
Voice of Women
PO Box 3231 South
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 3H5
Nova Scotia Women and the Law
Scotia Square Postal Outlet
P.O. Box 34040
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 3S1
Breast Cancer Action Nova Scotia
PO Box 34091 Scotia Sq Rpo
Halifax B3J 3S1, Nova Scotia
National Association of Women & the Law
c/o Jameison Sterns
1741 Brunswick Street, Suite 700
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 3Y8
Canadian Abortion Rights Action League
P.O. Box 101, Station M
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 4L4
Connections: A Womyn's Monthly
5419 Roome Street
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3K 2L6
Military Family Resource Centre
SP01 - CFB Halifax FMO
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3K 2X0
2421 Brunswick Street
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3K 2Z4
African United Baptist Association Women's Institute
70 Marsh Road
New Glasgow, Nova Scotia B3K 2Z4
2224 Maitland Street
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3K 2Z9
North End Parent Resource Centre
2465 Gottingen Street
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3K 3A3
Nova Scotia Women's Fishnet
2099 Gottingen Street
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3K 3B2
Black Women's Health Program
c/o 2165 Gottingen Street
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3K 3B5
National Action Committee on the Status of Women
c/o North End Community Health Center
2165 Gottingen Street
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3K 3B5
North Branch Library Women's Group
c/o Halifax Regional Library
5381 Spring Garden Road
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3K 3B7
Eastern Shore Safe House Association
1809 Barrington Street
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3K 3K8
Bryony House (Halifax Transition House Association)
2786 Agricola Street, Suite 119
Halifax, Nova Scotia
Canada B3K 4E1
Volunteering and Donations - 429-9001.
Administration Office 429-9002.
Outreach Office 429-9008.
Distress Line 422-7650
Email - firstname.lastname@example.org
Elizabeth Fry Society of Mainland Nova Scotia
2786 Agricola Street
Suite 217 - Bloomfield Centre
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3K 4E1
Tel: (902) 454-5041
Universal Shelter Association
2786 Agricola Street
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3K 4E1
The Universal Shelter Association is a non-profit, volunteer-based organization founded on the belief that every person has the right to live their life free from violence and abuse. The services provided by the Universal Shelter Association are designed to be sensitive to the diversity of our community in terms of culture, language, sexual orientation, physical ability, and/or level of income. We believe that a family can be defined as individuals who live together in the same household, and family violence refers to the abuse that can occur between and among individuals who are related by affection, kinship and trust. Family violence can include physical, emotional, financial, political, or religious abuse. Family violence has no boundaries based on culture, race, religion, class, or gender. We offer counseling, crisis intervention and refuge to anyone who wishes to leave a violent situation. Victims of family violence receive emergency shelter and care in safe houses registered with the Universal Shelter Association. Our safe homes are private residences located throughout the Metro-Halifax area and beyond, and are maintained by our dedicated group of volunteers. Shelter from abuse is an essential first step in regaining control over one's life. It is our purpose to provide that first step.
Nova Scotia Federation of Labour - Women's Committee
3700 Kempt Road, Suite 212
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3K 4X8
Status of Women Canada
805 - 6009 Quinpool Road
Halifax, Nova Scotia
Canada B3K 5J6
Telephone: (506) 851-3644
Canadian Congress for Learning Opportunities for Women
6305 Almon Street
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3L 1V1
Bayers-Westwood Family Support
6720 Chisholm Avenue
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3L 2R8
Immigrant Women's Support Association
c/o St. Andrews Recreation Centre
6955 Bayers Road
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3L 4S4
Midwifery Coalition of Nova Scotia
P.O. Box 33028
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3L 4T6
Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women
Halifax Shopping Centre
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3L 4T8
Centre for Women in Business
Mount St. Vincent University
166 Bedford Highway
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3M 2J6
Institute for the Study of Women
Mount Saint Vincent University
166 Bedford Highway
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3M 2J6
Public Service Alliance of Canada - Women's Committee
P.O. Box 301
287 Lacewood Drive
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3M 3Y7
Single Parent Centre
3 Sylvia Avenue
Spryfield, Nova Scotia B3R 1J7
Women's Centres CONNECT!
554 Herring Cove Road
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3R 1X3
Committee Against Woman Abuse
Captain William Spry Centre
10 Kidston Road
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3R 2J7
Women Down Prospect
1862 Lower Prospect Road
Lower Prospect, Nova Scotia B3T 1Y6
United Church Women
9 Campbell Drive
Bedford, Nova Scotia B4A 1N7
Memory Lane Family Place
70 Memory Lane
Lwr. Sackville, Nova Scotia B4C 2J3
Canadian Farm Women's Network
R.R. 4 , P.O. Box 441
Amherst, Nova Scotia B4H 3Y2
Catholic Women's League of Canada
PO Box 415
Amherst, Nova Scotia B4H 3Z5
AUTUMN HOUSE PO Box 1141 Amherst, Nova Scotia Canada B4H 4L2 Administration: Phone 902-667-1344 Fax 902-667-2768 CRISIS LINE: 902-667-1200 (will accept collect calls) Email: email@example.com
Cumberland County Transition House
P.O. Box 1141
Amherst, Nova Scotia B4H 4L2
PO Box 1149
Amherst, Nova Scotia B4H 4L2
P.O. Box 356
Kentville, Nova Scotia B4N 3X1
Women in Education for Kings County
1041 Minas Crescent
New Minas, Nova Scotia B4N 4G7
Family Support Centre
156 York Street
Bridgewater, Nova Scotia B4V 1R3
Second Story Women's Centre
PO Box 119
Bridgewater, Nova Scotia B4V 2W6
South Shore Transition House Association
PO Box 355
Bridgewater, Nova Scotia B4V 2W9
Yarmouth County Parent's Place
100 Main Street
Yarmouth, Nova Scotia B5A 1A0
11B Bond Street
Yarmouth, Nova Scotia B5A 1P6
P.O. Box 842
Yarmouth, Nova Scotia B5A 4K5
CLEAN NOVA SCOTIA’S WORK
Clean Nova Scotia creates positive environmental changes through a series of effective social marketing programs.
Climate Change Centre (CCC)
The CCC is hosted by Clean Nova Scotia: it serves as NS’s public education and outreach centre on climate change, one of a network of provincial and territorial hubs. Its goal is to increase awareness and motivate groups throughout Nova Scotia to develop and implement climate change and One-Tonne Challenge activities.
Great Nova Scotia Pick-Me-Up (GNSPMU)
Currently in its 15th year, the GNSPMU encourages and supports community groups, businesses, and individuals who want to take action on litter. The campaign provides blue bags, garbage bags, information and posters and collects data from participants to help identify litter and waste sources.
Planet Action Club for Kids (PACK)
PACK newsletters give students information and encourage their individual responsibility and action in pursuit of a healthy, sustainable future. The newsletter is produced three times annually. Aimed at grades 3-6, each issue and accompanying teacher’s guide focuses on a different environmental topic. Sponsorships ensure that this is a free resource for all interested educators.
Clean Nova Scotia, in cooperation with Green Street, offers Quagmire, a role-playing game that allows students to participate in deciding whether to protect a salt marsh. Quagmire is available in both English and French and is curriculum linked for grades 5-12.
Waste Reduction Week
National Waste Reduction Week (October 17-23, 2005) is a series of events to raise public consciousness about waste and its environmental and social ramifications. Clean Nova Scotia, as one of the founders of WRW, encourages you to rethink your definition of waste during Waste Reduction Week: it is important to reduce our consumption of all our valuable resources, including water and energy.
Other Active Programs
Energuide for Houses Home Energy Evaluations
EnerGuide for Houses, an initiative of Natural Resources Canada, is designed to help reduce household greenhouse gas emissions by encouraging Canadians to improve the level of energy efficiency in their homes. Clean Nova Scotia Energy Auditors visit the home and, using sophisticated tools and software, determine the energy performance of a house. They then report on sources of heat loss and energy wastage and, after retrofitting has been completed, assist the homeowners in applying for a grant for any improvements gained.
Enerinfo Line: Toll-free Energy Efficiency Advice for Nova Scotians
1-800-670-4636 is one-stop shopping for Nova Scotians seeking home energy efficiency advice. Questions about drafts? Lighting? Heating systems? Government grants? Call us and we will connect you with the information you need. Clean Nova Scotia’s Enerinfo Line is provided through program funding from the NS Department of Energy.
Still in early stage development, the Fleet Challenge is part of a Natural Resources initiative to encourage public and private commercial fleets to reduce their emissions promoting efficiency in driving practices, fuel management, vehicle selection and maintenance as well as through the procurement of efficient alternative vehicles and fuels.
Flush-Less: Septic System Education for Homeowners
Septic systems need to be properly operated and maintained. If they fail, they can cause serious health, financial, and environmental consequences. In some cases, replacing a failed system can cost as much as $15,000! The goal of the Flush-Less Program is to provide free and confidential homeowner education to reduce the probability of septic system failure.
The TD Canada Trust Great Canadian Shoreline Clean Up
Nova Scotia’s shorelines are one of our greatest treasures. Each September, join thousands of volunteers across Canada in cleaning up rivers, streams, lakes and ocean shorelines. Supplies, educational materials and support are provided free of charge.
The One-Tonne Challenge asks you to reduce your annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by one tonne by using less energy, conserving water and resources and reducing waste.
Small and Medium Business Energy Efficiency (SMBEE)
The Small and Medium Business Energy Efficiency program offers energy efficiency information and expertise in the areas of lighting, water, HVAC, building envelope and operations with the goal of helping businesses be more socially responsible, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and access available retrofit funding.
Towards a Brighter Future
Towards a Brighter Future is a student-driven educational opportunity for Nova Scotia schools to help mitigate global climate change. By promoting simple, cost-effective energy efficient practices, Towards a Brighter Future will reduce the energy needed to operate Nova Scotia’s schools, thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions linked to climate change. Towards a Brighter Future provides the opportunity for students, teachers, principals, and custodians to learn about energy conservation and Climate Change.
Tox-Free: Household Hazardous Waste Education Program
Tox-Free aims to educate homeowners about the health and environmental hazards of toxic household products and the environmental damage caused by improperly disposing of them. Homeowners are encouraged to switch to more environmentally-friendly and healthy home products and are engaged in proper Household Hazardous Waste (HHW) disposal methods.
YES: Youth Environmental Society
An extension of the community work Clean Nova Scotia has supported in the Preston area, the YES program marries youth with environmental community projects in their own area. In September of 2005, a Clean Nova Scotia / YES office opened in Preston, supported by funding from the Department of Community Services.
Nova Scotia’s Vibrant Coastline; Thriving Coastal Communities;and Sustainable Coastal Infrastructure: A Discussion Paper
How to Organize Training Sessions for Harbour Authorities and other Community-based Management Organizations
Manuel d’organisation de seances de formation pour les administrations
English pdf Version
French pdf Version
Alcohol Ban in Some Provincial Parks The Department of Natural Resources will place a temporary ban on alcohol in eight provincial parks again this year, beginning Friday, May 19. Two other parks will have a season-long alcohol ban.
The ban will help ensure that all visitors have a safe and enjoyable camping experience in Nova Scotia's provincial parks.
"For the past several years we have imposed a temporary ban on alcohol in selected provincial parks in reaction to a number of unfortunate alcohol-related incidents," said Brooke Taylor, Minister of Natural Resources. "This has resulted in a significant reduction in incidents and accidents. As in previous years, the safety of our park campers and day-users is our principal priority."
An alcohol ban will be in effect:
May 19 - Sept. 4 (inclusive) at:
-- Ellenwood Lake Provincial Park, Yarmouth Co.
-- The Islands Provincial Park, Shelburne Co.
May 19 - July 3 (inclusive) at:
-- Thomas Raddall Provincial Park, Queens Co.
-- Rissers Beach Provincial Park, Lunenburg Co.
-- Graves Island Provincial Park, Lunenburg Co.
-- Blomidon Provincial Park, Kings Co.
-- Dollar Lake Provincial Park, Halifax Co.
June 16 - July 3 (inclusive) at:
-- Valleyview Provincial Park, Annapolis Co.
-- Laurie Provincial Park, Halifax Co.
-- Caribou/Munroe’s Island Provincial Park, Pictou Co.
Handy Tips for Visitors
Facilities and Services
Currently, over half of our camping parks provide flush toilets, showers, and playgrounds. All have trailer dumping stations, picnic tables, water and firewood. More improvements are planned. Some of our parks offer hiking and cross-country ski trails, supervised beaches, group-use facilities, interpretive information, boat launches, and food concessions. The facilities and services available in each park are shown using a series of symbols, or are described in their listing.
Park Facilities for Senior Citizens and People with Disabilities
We are commited to providing facilities and services that encourage park use by everyone, including older people. We are constantly modifying our parks and developing new facilities to meet that commitment. Over half of our parks offer facilities for people with disabilities. Our special facilities at Lake Provincial Park, Halifax County, which include fishing piers, nature trails, picnic sites, and viewing areas, have received national recognition.
For more information on park facilities for people with disabilities, please contact the nearest office of the Department of Natural Resources, or write:
Parks and Recreation Division,
R.R.# 1, Belmont, Colchester County, NS, Canada
Nova Scotia's Weather
A favourite saying in Nova Scotia is "If you don't like the weather wait a minute, it's bound to change." Our maritime location means summer temperatures range from daytime highs of 20o - 25o C (68o - 77o F) to evening lows of 10o - 14o C (50o - 57o F). Invigorating sea breezes near the coast are often best enjoyed with a sweater on or at hand. Inland the air may be 5 - 10 degrees warmer, and the lakes, rivers, woodlands, and farms are pleasantly warm. Temperatures in spring and fall average about 10 degrees cooler. Enviroment Canada provides up to date weather conditions at http://weatheroffice.ec.gc.ca/forecast/maps/ns_e.html
Fishing and Hunting
With more than 9,000 freshwater lakes, countless streams and a long indented saltwater coastline, Nova Scotia offers many opportunities for the angler. Please remember, however, that provincial law requires a valid fishing license. This is obtainable from any Department of Natural Resources office or from vendors throughout the province. Likewise, to fish in National Parks you will need a National Parks Fishing License, available at National Parks offices. Current fishing regulations are provided at the point of purchase. For online information on Angling Regulations visit the Nova Scotia Dept. of Fisheries and Agriculture - Inland Fisheries Division Website..
In the interest of safety, hunting is not permitted within provincial parks, and uncased firearms and bows are prohibited, unless otherwise posted.
Pets in the Park
Pets are welcome in the park, however we ask that you keep other campers in mind by following these basic rules.
Recycling in Provincial Parks
- Keep your pet on a leash at all times
- Don’t allow your pet to deface park property.
- Clean up after your pet
- Pets are not permitted on the beach or in public structures.
- Barking dogs will not be tolerated.
Source separation and waste reduction is being introduced in the provincial parks system for the 2002 season, in partnership with the Department of Environment and Labour and the Resource Recovery Fund Board. As per provincial regulations, a four-stream source separation system will be established in all camping parks.
Proposed recycling stations will introduce and promote provincial recycling programs to residents and tourists. The proposed recycling station design is aesthetically pleasing and functional, and modeled from a successful prototype introduced in provincial camping parks in the Lunenburg area in the 2000 - 2001 camping seasons.
NOTE TO EDITORS: Following is a feature release outlining findings in The Economic Value of the Nova Scotia Ocean Sector, a study prepared by Gardner Pinfold Consulting Economists, as they relate to the boat building and marine manufacturing industry.
The boat-building and shipbuilding industry should continue to experience modest growth, according to a new study assessing the economic value of businesses in Nova Scotia's ocean-industries sector.
New activities such as oil and gas exploration have changed Nova Scotia's ocean-sector economy and have bumped up business activity in other sectors, such as shipbuilding, boat building and marine construction and manufacturing.
The study, which was sponsored by the provincial and federal governments and the Nova Scotia Fisheries Sector Council and released Monday, April 11, is entitled The Economic Value of the Nova Scotia Ocean Sector, and covers data from the period 1996 to 2001.
Both shipbuilding and boat building emerged from a downturn in the late 1980s and early 1990s, say the study's authors, Gardner Pinfold Consulting Economists Ltd.
An in-depth analysis of these areas reveals that despite some challenging market conditions, shipbuilding and boat building grew from about $73 million of the province's gross domestic product (GDP) in 1998 to $168 million in 2002.
"Overall there is much to celebrate, when you measure the value of the shipbuilding and boat building sectors," said Nova Scotia Economic Development Minister Ernest Fage. "They've weathered some tough seas, but we expect to see a further upswing and we remain optimistic about new growth."
Export sales also continued to grow. In 2001, the boat building sector alone rang in sales of $80 million, with $35 million in sales beyond Nova Scotia's borders. This work employs about 900 Nova Scotians in some of the province's smaller communities.
Demand for boat building is influenced by two major factors: the fishing industry and the pleasure-craft industry where there is exciting potential for boat builders who look beyond the shores of Nova Scotia to promising markets in the United States.
The province's shipbuilding industry has focused mostly on ship refits and repairs on vessels from the navy and the offshore. That focus led to a $156-million contribution to the province's GDP in 2002 and the study authors predict that the refit market will remain steady.
The study is available on the website at www.gov.ns.ca/econ/publications/oceanresources
A new study ranks Nova Scotia's fishery as the leading employer among industries that make their livelihood from the sea.
Nova Scotia's ocean sector had an overall $4-billion impact on the province's economy as measured in gross domestic product (GDP) in 2001. The contribution of fish harvesting and processing to that figure has risen gradually over the past decade, to $986 million in 2001.
The figures are contained in The Economic Value of the Nova Scotia Ocean Sector, a study prepared by Gardner Pinfold Consulting Economists for the federal and provincial governments and the Nova Scotia Fisheries Sector Council. The study covers the period 1996-2001 and was released Monday, April 11.
By 2001, the importance of fish harvesting by the province's 5,450 vessels to the Nova Scotia economy had risen to about $361 million, from $214 million in 1996. Household income from harvesting rose from $128 million to almost $185 million during the same period. The study's authors determined that, with stability in the number of harvesters at around 7,500, average incomes rose from about $17,000 to about $25,000 per year.
When you include spin-off activity, which occurs primarily in Nova Scotia's rural communities, the fishing industry generated about $672 million in household income, or 31.3 per cent of the province's ocean-sector total.
The Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Nova Scotia's Office of Economic Development, and numerous other departments will be using the results of the study to help make decisions about future policy directions relating to Nova Scotia's ocean industries.
"I am pleased to see the fishing industry growing in new areas so that fisheries will remain an important component of the Nova Scotia economy, employing literally thousands of people," said Economic Development Minister Ernest Fage.
The study identified a positive economic upswing in sectors like shellfish harvesting, which includes lobster, scallop snow crab and shrimp. Among the other encouraging trends noted by the study, fisheries continues to be the province's leading source of export earnings.
The importance of the fishing industry (including processing) to Nova Scotia is clear: it leads all other sectors in employment and ranks second to National Defence in income impact, according to the study's authors.
The authors found that better conditions in the fishery followed the collapse of the groundfishery and lower earnings of the 1990s. By 2000, the shift was being made from haddock and cod, they said, and vessel owners began responding to improved shellfish landings and better markets by replacing vessels and investing in additional ones.
The study is available on the website at www.gov.ns.ca/econ/publications/oceanresources
-30- For more information, please contact:
Personal Author: Haycock, Ken.
Title: Effective board governance series [sound recording] / with Ken
Publication info: [Canada] : Education Institute, .
Physical descrip: 5 sound discs + 1 CD-ROM ; 12 cm.
-- Effective board governance : overview
-- Lonely at the top? The board chair as community and board leader
-- Effective library board meetings
-- Strategic planning for library boards
-- Community development : the leadership role of the library board
Summary: What constitutes effective governance? What does the research
say about high performing boards? What are the specific criteria by
which you judge how well you are doing as a board? What are the
implications for you as a trustee, for your chair and for your
CEO/director? Participants will understand the key criteria for board
effectiveness and be able to analyze their own board functions from this
perspective. The result will be a more effective board with a clearly
defined focus on community development, higher level library planning
and allocation of resources and regular evaluation of programs and
services. The board will also have a higher profile in the community and
recruit new members based on identified needs.
NSPL CALL NUMBER: 021 .82 HAY
Nova Scotia Provincial Library
3770 Kempt Road
SUSTAINABLE MARITIMES (sust-mar)
Sust-mar is sponsored by CESR: http://cesr.dsu.dal.ca
Report on the Agriculture and Rural Life Conference
Mabou, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia
• The Voice of the Primary Producer: Who is Listening?
• Agriculture in Bay St. George South (Newfoundland)
• The Place of Small Diversified Family Farms in the Rural
• Farm Youths’ Risk-Taking Behaviour and the Knowledge of Farm Safety
• Green Care: The Farm as Part of the Health Care System
• Off-Farm Work: What Value? Whose Values?
• Climate Change and Cool Crops, Challenges, Opportunities, Risks
• Grazing for Profit, Health and Environmental Benefits
• Sustainability and Capacity Building in Rural Communities: Round
• Excerpts from the keynote address of John Ikerd,
‘Sustaining the Common Wealth of Rural People and Places.’
On August 19 and 20, 2006 approximately 50 people, mostly producers, plus
academics and community leaders gathered in the small rural community of
Mabou, Nova Scotia to lay the ground work for a new vision and direction for
their rural community.
John Ikerd, professor emeritus University of Missouri, gave the opening key
note address. What followed was mostly a celebration and acknowledgment of
the accomplishments of those who have been working hard to revitalize the
human side of agriculture; where family, lifestyle, social responsibility,
environmental stewardship and regionalism are once again becoming
mainstream; displacing globalization and many of the errant experiments, of
the past forty years, which attempted to industrialize and commodify all
The following is an outline of the presentations and the lessons learned.
The Voice of the Primary Producer: Who is Listening?
Norman Goodyear; NS Agr. College
Since the 1960's the ‘dominant’ history of agriculture had been one of
capitalization and mechanization.
Globalization has led to the marginalization of small producers.
Since the 1960's 10% of farm growth has been through government grants.
Quote: Jane Jacobs, ‘The Dark Ages Ahead,’ “We need more apprentices and
During the discussion that followed with the audience, it was pointed out
that there is a counterpoint to the conventional outlook on the history of
agriculture. Since the 1960's there has been a resurgence of small,
diversified and organic producers; largely ignored , by government and
conventional markets. Now that organic foods and regional markets are
becoming more main stream these early pioneers are gaining wider
The history of organic/alternative agriculture since the 1960's is a rich
one drawing on the earlier research of Sir Albert Howard and books such as,
‘Farmers of Forty Centuries,’ and Edward Faulkner’s ‘Plowman’s Folly.’ The
1960' and 70's saw the rise of research by the Rodales, and the
philosophical writing of Wendell Berry (‘The Unsettling of America: Culture
and Agriculture,’ and ‘The Gift of Good Land: Further Essays Cultural and
Agricultural,’ among others). In the 1970's Wes Jackson founded the Land
Institute and the secret knowledge of Rudolf Steiner’s ‘Biodynamic
Agriculture’ became publically accessible.
After the untimely, accidental deaths of Alan Chadwick and Robert Rodale
people such as John Jeavons showed market gardeners ‘how to grow more
vegetables on less land than they ever imagined.’ and the Japanese
agriculture extension agent Masanobu Fukuoka started a ‘one straw revolution’
by defining a ‘natural way of farming.’
During this time, authors and homesteaders Scott and Helen Nearing, became
the gurus of the back to the land movement and trained thousands of young
people to ‘live the good life’ by market gardening and living in harmony
with the land, their neighbours and their beliefs.
And Bill Mollison founded ‘Permaculture’ as an ethical design system
applicable to food production and land use, as well as community building.
These and other early pioneers of the back to the land movement were really
signaling the need to get back to basics. They sought the creation of
productive and sustainable ways of living by integrating ecology, landscape,
organic gardening, architecture and philosophy.
Today, globalization advocates recognize ‘organics’ as a new market
opportunity. This trend is good in that it may help to reduce the amounts
of pesticides being introduced into our environment. However, what global
marketeers fail to realize is that the revolution that began in the 60's is
not merely about the elements themselves, but rather, it is about the
relationships: the careful and contemplative observation of nature and
natural systems, and of recognizing universal patterns and principles, then
learning to apply these ‘ecological truisms’ to one’s own circumstances
within their communities and bioregions.
Agriculture in Bay St. George South (Newfoundland)
Erin Bourgeois, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, Memorial University
This region’s agriculture is supported with public pastures, community
vegetable storage facilities and a cooperative abattoir. Challenges persist
due to relatively low income levels in the region and corresponding low
education and that large population centres are far away.
Trends: The majority of farms are less than 20 years old, agriculture
focusing on a commodity based structure (86% root crops - Potatoes, Carrots
and Rutabagas) continues to struggle, 73% of the producers sell to
wholesalers, 63% moving into direct marketing, 13% have begun doing some
agri-tourism including the provincial ‘Open Farm Day’, only 27% have a
marketing plan, very few (if any) advertise their products, government is
working to develop a “Newfoundland” brand ( a trend similar to almost every
province in the country) based on “safe, environmentally conscious, and
While the speaker pointed out that more study was required to develop and
sustain agriculture in the region, it was suggested during open discussion
that regions like this may benefit from permaculture/bioregional planning
where zones of influence are identified; more remote zones focus on
agroforestry, pasture and orchards and row crops and more perishable foods
are grown closer to population centres. The move away from commodity based
agriculture was viewed as a positive initiative.
The Place of Small Diversified Family Farms in the Rural Countryside
Sue Machum, St. Thomas University
This presentation focused on the plight of ‘industrial vs.
non-industrialized agriculture and the resulting crisis of people leaving
the countryside. How can rural communities be developed if people continue
to move away? What is needed to sustain our rural populations?
Government policy continues to support the push for farms to get big and to
mechanize (i.e. reduce labour). This has led to the demise of many small
farms and rural residents.
Although the overall number of farms has been drastically reduced, 25% are
still small farms. This shows that there is a persistence among some to
retain rural lifestyles and traditional small farm values.
In the 1970's there was a mass exodus of farms and rural residents. Today,
82% of Canadians live in urban environments. However, in Atlantic Canada 52%
still live in rural countryside.
A passionate and lively discussion followed. Some farmers felt that the
some traditional farm organizations did not represent the interests of the
new, small farmer and that the policies that they lobbied government to
protect where those that protected only large farmers and/or unsustainable
systems. One suggestion was made that the required farm registration fees
should include membership to ACORN as well as the Federation of Agriculture
or the National Farmers Union. Others suggested that farmers who are now
required, by law, to join the existing representative organizations should
be encouraged to become more actively involved. It was pointed out that the
president of the Nova Scotia Federation of Agriculture is a certified
Farm Youths’ Risk-Taking Behaviour and the Knowledge of Farm Safety
Lauranne Sanderson NS Agr. College
Farming is the third most dangerous occupation.
1 in 10 farmers suffers a serious accident each year.
There is a serious and constant need to raise awareness and increase safety
standards on farms.
In later discussion it was again pointed out that the emerging themes of the
day which emphasized small farms and community-based agriculture also
support more human scale technology with fewer environmental
It was also suggested that while safety is an important concern that
legislation should not regulate to the point where children and the elderly
are denied the need to feel like important contributors to the families
work. However, common sense must prevail so that 10 year olds are not
operating heavy equipment etc.
Green Care: The Farm as Part of the Health Care System
Tarjei Tennessen, NS Agr. College
In Norway some farms are being used to provide therapeutic environments
where helping to make things grow and caring for animals is proving to
provide health benefits to the infirm.
It was emphasized that this realization is not new but as an official
government regulated health care system, it is a new development.
It was also noted that in order for it to be therapeutic the farm needs to
be a warm, caring environment. Factory style hog, chicken, cattle or dairy
farms or large acreage of row crops all managed from behind the wheel of a
tractor was not considered to be therapeutic.
However, the concept may offer significant diversification opportunities for
small farms with free range animals and market gardens.
For more information register your interests at www.farmingforhealth.org
Off-Farm Work: What Value? Whose Values?
Elizabeth Beaton, Cape Breton University
In 1991 90% of farm income came from off-farm.
Multi-occupation has become the norm rather than the exception.
On the negative side, this draws people away from agriculture and may
eventually force them to leave the farm/community to pursue full-time work
in the urban areas.
On the positive side, off-farm work provides an opportunity for personal
growth, development and global awareness. The increasing access to
information technology is allowing more people to work from home and
diversify there rural income.
“It is not what you do, but who you are.”
Climate Change and Cool Crops, Challenges, Opportunities, Risks
Jamey Coughlin NS Department of Agriculture
Allan Kwabiah, Atlantic Cool Climate Research Centre
Natasha Power, NS Agr. College
Climate change is an inevitable shift that farmers must adapt to.
Increasing rain, cooler summers with intermittent hot spells, and warmer
winters with occasional harsh storms will impact cultural practices.
Some farmers may experiment with plastic ground covers and or season
extenders for non-traditional crops. Ecological and economic costs will vary
with these systems. And they may be adding to the climate change problem
rather that working to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Insects will be a greater problem if winters continue to be milder.
Fluctuations in storms and temperatures will add new pressures on insect and
New opportunities may arise as a result of being able to grow crops that
previous generations could not grow (i.e. olives now being grown in the UK)
Grazing for Profit, Health and Environmental Benefits
Ralph Martin NS Agr. College
Pastures without fertilizer and pesticides will sustain soil quality, reduce
fuel use, mitigate green house gas emissions, reduce nutrient losses,
improve nutrient and energy efficiency, increase soil C and microbial
activity as indicators of soil health over time, improve water quality and
improve partial profitability and productivity under grazing in contrast to
The research evaluated grazing versus confinement feeding and the
comparative performance sod-seeded red clover selections with respect to
plant yield, forage quality, and persistence.
The experiment was conducted in summers on white clover-timothy-blue grass
based paddocks on pastures at the Nova Scotia Agricultural College.
Sub-paddocks were divided into five groups. Lamb and cattle groups are being
assessed for effects on manure decomposition and nutrient cycling, partial
profitability, forage yield, meat yield and quality, stocking rate and
animal health, including parasite loads. Red clover lines are being
evaluated to assess yields (in particular during summer droughts), quality
and persistence under aggressive rotational grazing.
Sustainability and Capacity Building in Rural Communities: Round Table
The relationships we build need to move beyond just local foods to servicing
and providing local energy and local building materials; to providing for
Your life is as good as your community.
We must create a place where our children and our children’s children will
stay and grow.
Sustainability is more than an economic ideal. It is about shared
leadership, shared responsibility, shared rewards, shared wealth, community
Nurture don’t dominate.
The challenges ahead make for critical and exciting times.
Rural depopulation is a global phenomenon. We need culturally appropriate
Institute for Global Ethics -
Mission: Promote ethical behavior in individuals, institutions, and
nations through research, public discourse, and practical action
As a nonsectarian, nonpartisan, global research and educational membership
organization, we strive always to be:
* Honest and truthful in all our dealings
* Responsible and accountable in every transaction
* Fair and equitable in each relationship
* Respectful and mindful of the dignity of every individual
* Compassionate and caring in each situation
Get political. Elected representatives have the power to change policies.
Rural people need to stand up for rights.
There are no “rights” just shared responsibilities.
We can choose to be the architects of an inspiring and promising future or
the defenders of our inevitable demise.
77% of conventional farmers have no successor. 35% of these farmers plan to
retire by 2010.
Think like a watershed. Define zones where appropriate building,
agricultural and/or business activity takes place.
Nearly 60% of all new farmers are first generation farmers.
70% of new farmers are either first or second generation.
90% of new farmers are highly diversified and over 90% of them would
recommend to other farmers to become highly diversified.
90% of new farmers have off farm income (same for traditional farmers).
95.8% of new farmers sell directly from farm to consumers through farm gate,
farmers markets and/or Community Supported Agriculture Projects (CSA’s).
Over 50% of market farmers, in N. America, grow on five acres or less.
The survival of the family farm (and the majority of new farms) depends on
increasing diversity and capturing a percentage of the sales at the retail
There is a strong need for government and institutional support for new,
small scale farmers. If our educators and legislators continue to ignore the
geometric growth of small farmers, then their programs and their advice will
soon become obsolete to the majority of farmers.
Build relationships (‘Value Chains’) not just with people within the food
sector (i.e. shippers, packers, processors, wholesalers and retailers) but
look beyond the agriculture/agri-food sector and create partnerships with
developers, entertainers, tour companies, chefs, health practitioners, and
social service providers.
Sell knowledge, skills and an experience; think of your crop as a by-product
to the information and experience you have to offer.
Agri-tourism will continue to grow in its importance. Since 2001 the
majority of the world’s population has been living in urban environments.
For the first time in the history of civilization we will be raising a
generation of children, the majority of whom have no connection to the farm
nor have even seen the stars at night. The farm as an experience will be
more valuable and more unique than the food it provides.
The small farm revolution has redefined how we think about our food and our
environment. It is now redefining how we value wealth, knowledge, security
More and more farmers and their customers are meeting through farmers
markets, roadside stands, community supported agriculture organizations
(CSAs), and other forms of direct marketing. A doubling of the number of
farmers’ markets during the 1990s and persistent growth in CSAs and other
forms of direct sales attested to the growth of this new niche market. A
growing number of retail food cooperatives, health food stores, and even
specialty organic food stores also provide important new market outlets for
locally grown and/or organic foods.
• Support local farmers by providing them with a market for the food they
• Provide customers with fresh, natural foods raised humanely, without
hormones or sub-therapeutic antibiotics, and
• Raise animals and crops in a manner which protects and conserves the
precious resources upon which they rely.
Phil Ferraro and Nancy WillisInstitute for Bioregional Studies Ltd.
114 Upper Prince Street, Charlottetown
Prince Edward Island Canada C1A 4S3
"DEVELOPING LOCAL SOLUTIONS TO GLOBAL PROBLEMS"
Permaculture, Community Development, and Leadership Training
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